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Typical reaction: 1. The reaction of benzene with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids at 50oC to give nitrobenzene.

The mechanism:

The formation of the electrophile, NO2+, is a consequence of sulphuric acid being a stronger acid than nitric acid:

HNO3  +  2H2SO4    NO2+  +  H3O+  +  2HSO4-

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Typical reaction: 2. The Friedel-Crafts reaction between chlorine and benzene in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride as catalyst. The reactants are heated under reflux.

The mechanism:

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Points:


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